The 8 parts of speech are:

  • Noun
  • Adjective
  • Pronoun
  • Verb
  • Adverb
  • Preposition
  • Conjunction
  • Interjection



Name, place, or thing.

Abdul Kalam is the president of India
The Jasmine smells sweet
His courage won him honor
Four Kinds Of Nouns
Common noun
Proper nouns
Collective Noun
Abstract noun


Common Noun is a name given in common to every person, place or thing  of the same kind or class

Example: Boy, girl, Man, Woman, park, Lion, River.
The crowd was very big
A committee of 5 was appointed.
The soldiers were rewarded for their bravery.
Bees build hives.
The garden has many flowers.


Proper nouns –  Is the name of a particular person, place or thing. Proper nouns must always begin with a capital letter when we write.
The Brahmaputra over flows its banks every year
Mr. Raman is the chairman of that company
The Earth revolves around the sun.
Mumbai is the capital of Maharahstra.


–Is the name of a number of persons or things taken together and spoken of as one whole.
Crowd, mob, team, flock, family, army, jury, nation, herd, swarm, crew, fleet, set, group


Is usually the name of a quality , an action or a state, considered apart from the subject to which it belongs.
Goodness, kindness, darkness, laughter, sleep, poverty, sickness, slavery.


A noun that denotes one person or thing is called a singular number
Boy, girl, cow, bird, chair, book.

A noun that denotes more than one person or thing is called a plural number
Boys, girls, cows, birds, chairs, books.
Tree/trees, box/boxes, ox/oxen, man/men


When a noun ending with “y” is preceded by a consonant, change the “y” to “I” and add  “es”


Baby – babies
Lady – ladies


If a noun ends with in “fe” or “f”, the ending is changed to “ves”


life– lives
thief– thieves
Add “es” to nouns ending in “sh”, “ch”, “s”, “Z” and “x”
Wish – wishes
Class – classes


If a noun ends with in “fe” or “f”, the ending is changed to “ves”


life– lives
thief– thieves
Add “s” or “es” to nouns ending in “o”
tomato– tomatoes, tomatos
hero- heros


The plural forms of these nouns is also irregular:
Child – children


Word used with a noun to describe or point out the person, an.. which the noun names, or to tell the number of quantity- is called an adjective- adds meaning!
We may say an Adjective is a word used with a noun to add meaning (added to)

Adjective of Quality
Distributive Adjective
Adjective of Quantity
Demonstrative  Adjectives
Interrogative Adjectives
Adjective of number
Adjective of quality

Tells us something about the quality of the noun.
Kolkotta is a large city.
He is an honest man.
The foolish crow tried to sing
Re red car sped past our house.

Distributive Adjective
Distributive Adjective point to each one of a number  of countable nouns.

For example:
He is a man  of few words.
Every dog has his day
Each boy must take  his turn.

Adjective of Quantity
Adjective  of quantity tell us what amount  of an uncountable noun is meant.

For example:
I ate some rice.
There hasn’t been sufficient rain this year.
He lost all his wealth.

Demonstrative Adjective
Point to what or which noun is meant.
These grapes are sour
Those houses must be expensive
I was in such a pain after the fall


Are what, which and whose when they are used  with nouns  to ask questions.
What is the time?
Which way shall we go?
Whose hat are you wearing?

Adjective of number tell us  how many of a countable noun is  meant  or in  what order a  countable  noun stands.
The hand  has five fingers.
Most People Like  cricket
There are several issues to deal with.

There are two ways to make a comparison in English:
Use More in front of the Adjective
Its More exciting
Add –er to end of the adjective
A bus is cheaper than a taxi
Using Than
I am older than my wife


Listen to the following sentences:
Chitra’s voice is sweet
Asha’s voice is sweeter than  Chitras’
Lata’s voice is the sweetest of all
Positive ending with “er”


Most adjectives  form the comparative by adding  “-er” to positive  degree. Similarly the superlative of such adjectives are formed  by adding “-est” to the positive degree.

Small Smaller Smallest
Bold Bolder Boldest
Tall Taller Tallest
Great Greater Greatest
Young Younger Youngest
Cold Colder Coldest

Positive ending with “e”

In cases when +ve ends in “e”, Only “r” & “st”are added to positive to form the comparative and superlative respectively.

“e” “r” “st”
Brave braver bravest
Fine finer finest
Large larger largest
Wise wiser wisest
White whiter whitest

Positive ending with “y”

When +ve ends in “y”, then “y”is changed to “I” before  adding  “er” to form the comparative  degree  and “est” to form the superlative  as shown in the following examples:

“y” “ier” “est”
Happy Happier Happiest
Easy Easier Easiest
Heavy Heavier Heaviest
Wealthy Wealthier Wealthiest


A word that is used instead of a noun is called a PRO-noun
Subject  Pronouns

A subject pronoun takes the place of the noun or subject. Subject pronouns come in front of verbs while object pronoun follow them

I We
You You
He, she, it They

Deepa goes to school
She goes to school
Santosh and Deepak live there
They live there


me us
you you
him, her, it them

We see our friends
We see them (them takes the place of friends)
Call the waiter
Call him. (i.e. the waiter)
They like Coffee
They like it. (i.e. coffee)

Placement of Object Pronouns
When there is a sentence with more than one object pronoun, the rule is as follows:
Place the direct object pronoun directly after ht verb
Any indirect pronoun will come last
We the lawyer give you the envelope
He Gives it to you.
They will send me some letters
They will send them to me
He is explaining the will to us
He is explaining it to us.

1st person, singular – my
3rd person, singular – his, her, its
1st person, plural – our
2nd person, sing/pl. – your
3rd person, plural –    their
1st person, singular – mine
2nd  person, singular – yours
3rd  person, singular– his, hers, its
1st person, plural. –  – ours
2nd person, plural – yours
3rd person, plural –  theirs

Forms of “other”



myself ourselves
yourself yourselves
himself, herself, itself themselves

A reflexive pronoun usually refers to the subject of a sentence:
We looked at ourselves in the mirror (we and ourselves are the same persons)

Sometimes reflexive pronouns are used for emphasis:
I washed my clothes myself


WHO     (used for people)
WHICH  (is used only for things)
THAT     (to refer to person or thing)
I tipped the waiter who (that) served us.
We thanked the people who (that) helped us.
She found the book which I needed


To differentiate between things in English, use either:

Do you what this box or that box?
I would like some of that popcorn
Do you want these or those?
This apartment is nicer than that one

Relative Pronouns: Objects
Follow the same rules for using who(m) which, and that, as you do with other relative pronouns. Only differnce,now these pronouns are objects
The movie that we saw last night was very good
The movie which we saw last night was very good

Relative Pronouns: Objects
For people, you will use either who or whom. Who is usually used instead of whom in colloquial speech, even though it is grammatically incorrect.
The person who they saw was good
The person whom they saw was good
There is the driver who the police arrested
There is the drive whom the police arrested.

Using “Whose”
Whose is used to show possession. It has the same meaning as other possessive adjectives such as his, hers, its, their, etc.
There’s the man whose house we bought
I have a book whose story is fascinating

Whose modifies people but can also be used with things.
You should learn how to combine short sentences using Whose. 
The woman is a talented artist. I saw her paintings.
The woman whose paintings I saw is a talented artist.

Using “Where”
Where can be used to ask questions:
Where are you going?
Where can also be used in a dependent clause:
I see the house where they live.
In the later example, where is used to refer to a place, such as a city, state, country , room, etc.

In dependent clauses, where can be replaced with in which, which…in, that…in, or nothing.
The building where they work is new.
The building in which  they work is new.
The building, which they work in, is new.
The building that they work in is new.
The building they work in is new.

Using “When”
When can be used to ask questions:
When are you leaving?
When can also be used in a depndent clause:
I forgot the date when you arrived
In the latter example, when is used to refer to a noun of time (i.e., a day, week, month etc.)
Time clauses:
I forgot the date that you arrived
I forgot the date on which you arrived
Combining sentences with when:
I’ll always remember the day she was born. She was born then (on that day)
I’ll always remember the day when she was born


The Verb is a word of action. It tells or assets something about a person or thing.
There may be just  ONE word which makes meaning by itself showing Action.

For Example:
Run, Sit, Go, Do, Come, Look it, are verbs, so you may have a complete sentence with just this one word…
The word (you) before Run is understood. Similarly when  we say “sit” the you before sit is understood.

A verb is in Active Voice when the person or thing it denotes is doing the action.
A verb is in Passive Voice when something is done to the person or thing it denotes.

For Example:
A mason is building the wall (active)
The wall is being built by the mason (passive)
The watch man opened the gate (active)
The gate was opened by the watchman (Passive)
Who did this? (Active)
By whom was this done? (passive)